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Курсовая:
Тема:

Small businesses in Russia

Предмет:

Английский язык

Страниц: 26
Автор: Юлия
Цена:
1640  руб.
Introduction
A successful post-communist economic restructuring in Russia is driven by growth of private firms, which make up for the contraction of output of traditional enterprises. The shares of employment and output of the latter invariably decline as a result of correction of structural distortions left by central planning, closures of enterprises unable to sustain themselves under market conditions, disorganization of exceedingly complex and often unsustainable inter-enterprise links, and the possibility to divert inputs from the state-owned sector of the economy in search of higher return. These processes result in the transitional recession. The economy recovers when the nascent private sector picks up and becomes an engine of the subsequent economic growth (see e.g. Murrell, 1992). Vigorous development of the private sector shortens the recession, speeds up recovery, and reduces the social costs of transition by creating new jobs and generating market income for the labor released from traditional firms.
The most dynamic and vibrant part of the newly emerging private sector are small and medium enterprises. They are the first to respond to market signals and fill numerous niches left by the central planning, notorious for its rigidity and lack of attention to consumer demand. At the same time, small and medium firms give a natural outlet for heretofore suppressed entrepreneurial energy. Smaller firms usually can be created with limited resources, and in particular with minimal start-up capital This is an important factor, given the lack of private wealth at early stages of transition, and reluctance of potential lenders to extend large loans to borrowers with no track records. Finally, small businesses form a natural constituency for the competitive market economy, and also contribute to the formation of a middle class which stabilizes the society and serves as a bulwark against political extremism. Therefore the SME sector could play an important and positive political role in the post-communist transition. That’s why the theme of this paper is acute.
The major goal of the paper is to determine the role and perspectives for small businesses in Russia.
Introduction 3

1.The role of small businesses in Russia 5

2.Effectiveness and efficiency of small businesses 9

3.Problems and obstacles of small businesses 12

4. Government policy for small businesses development in Russia 19

Conclusions 24

References 26

1.Afanasieva, Т., V. Lazarev, and Т. Pudenko. Support to Small Businesses in Russia: A New Technology of Program Development. (In Russian). Entrepreneurship in Russia, 2008, No 4, pp. 45-52.
2.Aslund, A. Observation of the Development of small Private Enterprises in Russia. Post-Soviet Geography, v. 38, 2007.
3.Bardhan, P. Corruption and Development: A Review of Issues. Journal of Economic Literature, v. 35, n 3, 2007, pp. 1320-1346.
4.Barkhatova, N. Russian Small Business, Authorities and State. Europe-Asia Studies, v. 52, pp. 657-676, 2000.
5.Bukhvald, E., and A. Vilensky. Russian Model of Interaction of Small and Large Entrepreneurship. (In Russian). Voprosy Ekonomiki, No. 12, 2009, pp. 66-78.
6.Commander, S., Kollo, J., Ugaz, G, and B. Vilagi. Hungary. In: Unemployment, Restructuring, and the Labor Market in Eastern Europe and Russia. Washington, D.C., The World Bank, 2005, pp. 1-38.
7.Dolgopyatova, T. Institutional Development of the Small Business Sector in the Russian Economy. (In Russian). Economics in Modern Russia, No. 3, 2009, pp. 49-63.
8.Frey, Т., and A. Shleifer. The Invisible Hand and the Grabbing Hand. American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings, v. 87, n 3, 2007, pp. 354-358.
9.Gaddy, G, and B.W.Ickes. To Restructure or Not to Restructure: Informal Activities and Enterprise Behavior in Transition. Mimeo, 2008a.
10.Gaddy, G, and B.W.Ickes. Beyond a Bailout: Time to Face Reality About Russia's Foreign Affairs, 2008b.
11.Glisin, F., and S. Rogachevskaya. Main Trends In Actual and Expected Commercial Activities of Small Businesses in Industry, Construction, and Retail Trade. (In Russian). Voprosy Statistiki, No. 7, 2008, pp. 24-39.
12.Gurova, Т., N. Kirichenko, D. Medovnikov, A. Privalov. Most Important Problems of the Russian Business: Who Is Going to Solve Them? (In Russian). Ekspert, No 42, 2009, pp. 23-28.
13.Impediments to Small Business Development in the Russian Federation. Mimeo, 2009.
14.Informal Sector in the Russian Economy (in Russian). Institute for Strategic Analysis and Entrepreneurship, Moscow, 2008.
15.Johnson, S., D. Kaufman and A. Shleifer. The Unofficial Economy in Transition. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, v. 1,2008.
16.Kostin, A. Choice After Elections. (In Russian), hvestia, January 28, 2000.
17.Murrell, P. Evolution in Economics and in the Economic Reform of the Centrally Planned Economies. In: The Emergence of Market Economies in Eastern Europe. Cambridge, Blackwell, 2002.
18.Olson, M. The Logic of Collective Actions. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1965. Olson, M. The Rise and Decline of Nations. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1982.
19.Polishchuk, L. Russian Federalism: Economic Reform and Political Behavior. California Institute of Technology, WP 972,2006.
20. Radaev, V. Small Business and Problems of Business Ethics: Hopes and Realities. (In Russian). Voprosy Ekonomiki, 2006, No. 7, pp. 79-81.
21.Smirnov, S. Small Entrepreneurship: Public Support and Assistance in Development. (In Russian). Moscow, Kontur Press, 2009.
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