INTRODUCTION A language appears, it grows, like a child, develops, like an adult, changes during its life, due to many linguistic and extra-linguistic factors, and, finally, it dies, giving birth to other languages. In what follows the second stage of a language life – its growth and development will be researched. What is a semantic change? What is a change itself? In this research we shall try to give an answer to this question . One of the most important phenomena that occur during a language life is semantic change and semantic development. Due to meaning changes a language develops, enriches becomes perfect. The study of semantic change involves studying etymology of a language. The aim of the paper is to study the problem of lexical units’ semantic change in the course of language development. This aim can be reached by completing the following tasks: – defining the term “semantic change” – studying the questions of classification, principles and causes of semantic changes; – analyzing changes in the meaning of a set of lexemes on semantic, morphological and stratificational levels. Syntactic change of a word meaning affects grammar in its morphological and syntactic aspects and is seen as gradual, the product of chain reactions and subject to cyclic drift. The view that creole languages are the product of catastrophism is heavily disputed. Of course, the meaning of a given word or affix may remain stable for very long periods, and (Proto-Indo-European etyma of NE sir, fill, udder, foot, wheel, ted, name, egg and mouse had pretty much the same meanings seven thousand years ago as their present-day English reflexes (if one disregards a host of added meanings, like red «Communist»). But these semantic Methuselah are in fact the exception: words usually do not retain meanings unaltered for any length of time, so in historical and comparative linguistics some understanding of the nature of semantic change is vital for dealing with the routinely divergent semantics of cognate forms.
INTRODUCTION 4 CHAPTER 1. SEMANTIC CHANGES OF A WORD MEANING: THEORETICAL ASPECTS 8 1.1 Semantic changes: essence of the term 8 1.2 Types of a word semantic change: general information 14 1.3 Semantic change: traditional classifications 23 1.4 Principles of semantic changes 29 1.5 Causes of semantic change 31 CHAPTER 2. WORD SEMANTIC CHANGE: PRACTICAL ANALYSIS 37 2.1 Discussion questions for semantic change of a word 37 2.2 Semantic change within word lexical change 47 CONCLUSION 53 LIST OF USED LITERATURE 57 LIST OF USED DICTIONARIES 58
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