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Тема:

Semantic changes of a word meaning in the english language

Предмет:

Английский язык

Страниц: 55
Автор: Юлия
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3840  руб.
INTRODUCTION
A language appears, it grows, like a child, develops, like an adult, changes during its life, due to many linguistic and extra-linguistic factors, and, finally, it dies, giving birth to other languages. In what follows the second stage of a language life – its growth and development will be researched. What is a semantic change? What is a change itself? In this research we shall try to give an answer to this question .
One of the most important phenomena that occur during a language life is semantic change and semantic development. Due to meaning changes a language develops, enriches becomes perfect.
The study of semantic change involves studying etymology of a language.
Syntactic change of a word meaning affects grammar in its morphological and syntactic aspects and is seen as gradual, the product of chain reactions and subject to cyclic drift. The view that creole languages are the product of catastrophism is heavily disputed.
Of course, the meaning of a given word or affix may remain stable for very long periods, and (Proto-Indo-European etyma of NE sir, fill, udder, foot, wheel, ted, name, egg and mouse had pretty much the same meanings seven thousand years ago as their present-day English reflexes (if one disregards a host of added meanings, like red «Communist»). But these semantic Methuselah are in fact the exception: words usually do not retain meanings unaltered for any length of time, so in historical and comparative linguistics some understanding of the nature of semantic change is vital for dealing with the routinely divergent semantics of cognate forms.
It must be emphasized that the examples in the following discussion are culled from countless possibilities. Anyone who spends a few minutes glancing at entries in a large dictionary must be impressed by both the quantity and extent of the semantic change chronicled there. As is true of so much of language study, the sheer luxuriance of the subject is an obstacle to clear understanding. The following discussion has only the limited object of highlighting the things that go on in semantic change.
Any attempt at a systematic study of semantic change, in fact, will yield only limited rewards, for two reasons: with rare (and not very helpful, however Interesting) exceptions, semantic change is completely pattern less; and, second, insight is forestalled by our nearly perfect ignorance of the teal nature of the semantic component of language. Both these points merit discussion.
INTRODUCTION 4

CHAPTER 1. SEMANTIC CHANGES OF A WORD MEANING: THEORETICAL ASPECTS 8

1.1 Semantic changes: essence of the term 8

1.2 Types of a word semantic change: general information 14

1.3 Semantic change: traditional classifications 23

1.4 Principles of semantic changes 29

1.5 Causes of semantic change 31

CHAPTER 2. WORD SEMANTIC CHANGE: PRACTICAL ANALYSIS 37

2.1 Discussion questions for semantic change of a word 37

2.2 Semantic change within word lexical change 45

CONCLUSION 51

LIST OF USED LITERATURE 55

LIST OF USED DICTIONARIES 56




1. Антрушина Г.Б., Афанасьева О. В., Морозова Н. Н. Лексикология английского языка: Учеб. пособие для студентов. — М.: Дрофа, 1999. – на англ.яз.
2. Арнольд И.В. Лексикология современного английского языка: Учеб. для ин-тов и фак. иностр. яз. — 3-е изд., перераб. и доп. — М.: Высш. шк., 1986. — на англ.яз.
3. Aijmer, Karin. The semantic development. London, 1985.
4. Atlas, Jay David & Stephen C.Levinson. Informativeness, and logical form: radical pragmatics (Revised Standard Version). Peter Cole ed., 1981.
5. Brown, Roger. Words and Things. New York, 1958.
6. Bybee, Joan & William Pagliuca. Radical pragmatics. New York: Academic Press, 1987.
7. Cruise, A. Lexical semantic. Cambridge: Cambridge University press, 1995.
8. Galperin I.R. An Essay in Stylistic Analysis. Moscow, 1968.
9. Geeraerts, Dirk. Semantics and Word-formation. Berlin and New York: Mouton, 1997.
10. Gentner Dedre. Metaphor as structural mapping: The relational shift. London, 1988.
11. Griberg S. I. Basic lexicology. Moscow, 1980.
12. Kaplan, Edith and Bernard. The Acquisition of Word Meaning: A Developmental Study, 1952.
13. Keil L. Word and its meaning. Cambridge: Cambridge University press, 1996.
14. Kuharenko V.A. Stylistics of the modern English language. M., 1971.
15. Kulin S.V. English Lexicology. Moscow, 1994.
16. Lehmann, Christian. Semantics: Synchronic variation and diachronic change. Lingua estile, 1985.
17. Lewis, Diana M. Rhetorical motivations for the emergence of discourse particles, with special reference to English of course. Particles. Belgian Journal of Linguistics, 2003.
18. Mednikova E.M. Seminars in English Lexicology. Moscow: Vyshaja shkola, 1978.
19. Nerlich, Brighitte. Semantic Change And Semantic Development. Internet: www.le.ac.uk/psychology/htm/10lk
20. Powell, Mava-Jo. The systematic development. 1992.
21. Rinaburg R.A. Course in Modern English Lexicology. Moscow, 1976.
22. Semantic change. Papers from the 7th International Conference on Historical Linguistics (ICHL 7), Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, Bybee, Joan, Revere Perkins & William Pagliuca. 1994.
23. Sihler, Andrew L. Language History: An Introduction. Birmingham, 1982.
24. The evolution of lexicology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985.
25. Traugott, C.Elizabeth and Dasher, B.Richard. Semantic Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
26. Traugott, C.Elizabeth. The role of the language development. Paper presented at the Twelfth International Conference on Historical Linguistics. Manchester, August, 1995.
27. Werner H. Change of meaning: A study of semantic processes through the experimental method. 1954.
LIST OF USED DICTIONARIES
28. Hornby A.S. The Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. - Fifth Edn. - Oxford: Oxford university press, 1995.
29. Sommer, Elyse. Mataphors Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.
30. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. - Fourth Edition. - Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000.
31. Warner, Nancy. Mataphors Dictionary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
32. http://www.etymonline.com/
33. http://www.indo-european.nl/index2.html
34. http://www.myetymology.com/
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