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Английский язык

Страниц: 60
Автор: Иван Иванович
1100  руб.

Nowadays the social demands of society in the field of foreign language study set the challenges of the spiritual development of the learners, improvement the humanistic content of the study, a more complete implementation of educational and developmental potential of educational subject in relation to the personality of each learner. The primary objective of foreign language study in secondary schools is to develop the pupil’s personality, able and willing to participate in cross-cultural communication and self-improve in the sphere of the study activity. Communicative and socio-cultural development of a pupil by means of a subject “foreign language” is carried out by the proper implementation of country-study approach. This approach provides learning a language closely related to the foreign language culture, which includes a variety of useful information about the history, literature, architecture, lifestyle, habits and traditions of the people of the country the language of which is studied. Country-study lessons promote a pupil to keep on further study of the country-study material on his own. And that is the country study to serve as a support for maintaining motivation, as it includes such two aspects:
1) teaching language, its general and special features and preparing a learner to use this knowledge in practice;
2) giving information about the country, the language of which is studied, making a learner to take up the culture of native-speaking countries.
According to K.S. Kirichevskaya, country-study material includes original literature, folklore, painting, music works and everything that can tell something about the country the language of which is studied in any aspect including language, customs, goods, clothes, dinnerware and just their images and especially literature [21, с. 28].
There is a great deal of foreign, in particular, English and American writers of fiction worth attention. Some of them are Joseph Conrad, D.H. Lawrence, Virginia Woolf, George Orwell, Evelyn Waugh, Theodore Dreiser, William Somerset Maugham, James Aldridge, Ernest Hemingway.
Ernest Hemingway has raised special interest of scholars, linguists and just people for much time. His late works except for the novel “The Old Man and the Sea”, which is the subject of numerous literary works, remain under-researched and have various contrasting estimates. This is mostly because of the fact that the many of these works were published after his death (“A Moveable Feast” 1964, “Islands in the Stream” 1970, “The Garden of Eden” 1986, “True at First Light” 1999).
Many biographies and fundamental studies of Hemingway’s literary activity published both in the USA and in our country, have incomplete material. One of such works is “Hemingway and Heroism” by L. Gurko, published in 1963 before the publication of a Hemingway’s book of memories “The Movable Feast” [31,с. 216]. Books of one of the best American scholars researching Hemingway’s writing, K. Beyker, such as “Hemingway. The History of Life” and “The Writer as an Artist”, published in the 60-70s, relate mainly to the works of Hemingway, issued during life of the writer [31, с. 229]. S. Donaldson in his monograph “Force of Will. Life and Works of Ernest Hemingway” gives a more detailed analysis of the novel “Islands in the Stream” integrating it into the whole system of works of E. Hemingway [31, с. 231].
In our country literary studies in 60-70s biographical method is actively used to study the writing of Hemingway. There is a book written by the well-known researcher of Hemingway’s works I.A. Kashkin “E. Hemingway. Critical and Biographical Essay” (1966). In this book the author refers only to the writer of those novels and stories that were published during his lifetime. Referring to the writer’s works of 40’s-50’s, I. A. Kashkin compares two works – the novel “The Old Man and the Sea” and the novel “Across the River and Into the Trees”, noting correctly that they are different in mood, style and type of a character, though they were created in the same time [27, с.38].
In the book of B.T. Gribanov “Ernest Hemingway” the history of writer’s works creation and their perception of American criticism were described. Gribanov also refers to the life circumstances that formed the basis of the book of memoirs “The Movable Feast”. Just as in many biographies of Hemingway by other American and foreign authors (K. Baker, P. Griffin, and S. Kauffmann, B. Gilenson), Gribanov consider this work Hemingway as a kind of “piggy bank” of his statements about the writer’s work. Gribanov also refers to the creative history of the trilogy “of the sea”, parts of which were such novels as “Islands in the Stream” and “The Gardens of Eden”, published in 1970 and 1986 [20, с. 109].
Analysis of separate periods of Ernest Hemingway’s literary activity, the characteristics of his art world were given in such works: Charles Fenton “Discipleship of Hemingway. The Early Years” (1961), K. Beyker “The Writer as an Artist” (1972), Leedskiy “The Creativity of Hemingway” (1973), Finkelstein “Hemingway, the Novelist. The Years of the 20’s and 30’s” (1974). These books devoted to the works of Hemingway which were published before his death. However, they can serve as a methodological basis for studying the writer’s posthumously published works and changing some established views to the late works of Ernest Hemingway as a whole.
The works of American and local researchers published in 80-90’s are few and also largely based on the biographical method. Some of them are the researches by J. Meyers, K. Lynn, J.B. Nelson, and G. Jones, B.A. Gilenson. Thanks to the mentioned researches of Hemingway’s late works, it is possible to obtain new data on the life and writing of the writer.
In the works of local and American literature, Hemingway’s works are put into the context of American and world literature development; the writer’s posthumously published works are not included here. It can be found in such books as “Literary History of the United States” (1988), “The Modern Realist Novel of the United States. 1945-1980” (1988), “American Literature of the Twentieth Century” (1984), “Modern American Novel” (1964). Here the researchers focus their attention on universally accepted “top” works of Ernest Hemingway, especially of the novel “The Old Man and the Sea”. Such novels as “Gardens of Eden”, “Islands in the Stream”, a book of memories “The Movable Feast” are not researched by the authors of mentioned above works. However, these things need to be analyzed from the contextual approach.
In local literary studies many researchers turn to the analysis of the specific genre, stylistic features of prose of the writer, the problem of a character in his works. These are the article by A. Kashkin “Content-Form-Content”, a section on of the Mayants’ book “Man Alone Can’t Go…” [31, с.33]. Many papers are devoted to the problem of subtext in the books of Ernest Hemingway. In particular, this problem was studied by Kashkin, Zasursky. T. Motyleva in her book “Foreign Novel Today” (1966) stops on the problem of the relation of the epic poetry and the novels of the writer [12, с. 93]. B. Dneprov in his book “The Ideas of Time and Form of Time” studies the transformation of the genre and stylistic features of works of Ernest Hemingway on the example of a novel “For Whom the Bell Tolls” making emphasis on the strengthening of epic factor in it [12, с.93]. There are works, both foreign and local, considering Hemingway as a master of landscape. They use an interdisciplinary approach to the analysis of Hemingway’s works (V. Ivanov, V. Yatsenko, A. Kazin).
Mentioned above things of literature, turned to the works of Hemingway’s 20-30’s, including the novel “For Whom the Bell Tolls”, provide us a methodological framework for study of the stylistic features of creativity and genre of late works by Hemingway. There are no domestic researches studying this problem from such methodological approaches. However, this aspect of the writer’s late writing need further study. Posthumously published works of the writer are not well-understood.
The novel “Islands in the Stream” was released in 1970. Some individual pages of American literary studies were devoted to it, among which are “The Power of Will. Life and Works of Ernest Hemingway” (1977) by S. Donaldson, “Hemingway. Biography” (1985) by J. Meyers, ”Hemingway” (1987) by K. Lynn. In details the creative history of the novel was described by K. Baker. There are very few local studies on the novel “Islands in the Stream”. Following the publication of the novel in Russian there appeared an article “The Characters and the Conflict of the Unfinished Novel” (1971) by I. Kantorovich and the review of A.S. Norilsk (1972). In the article of I. Kantorovich “Islands in the Stream” is compared with “For Whom the Bell Tolls” pointing to anti-fascist orientation of these works [13, с. 99]. A.S. Norilsk pointed to atmosphere of despair, of the dead-end in the novel, so they have some common features with the literature of the “stream of consciousness” [9, с. 116].
Thus, there is an objective need for the study of late writing by Hemingway. First of all posthumously published works should be studied. So this is the thing to determine the relevance of my research work.
The object of the research is Ernest Hemingway’s “Islands in the Stream”.
The subject of the research is the language and stylistic peculiarities of this work.
The aim of our research is to find out the peculiarities of language and style of Ernest Hemingway’s novel “Islands in the Stream”. To achieve the aim the following tasks were put forward:
1) to get acquainted with the biography of the prominent writer Ernest Hemingway;
2) to analyze Ernest Hemingway’s works in general;
3) to find out the features of Ernest Hemingway’s pen;
4) to analyze the novel “Islands in the Stream”;
5) to determine the language and stylistic peculiarities of the novel “Islands in the Stream”.
The research methods such as bibliographical, analytical, descriptive, comparative were used.
The scientific novelty of the research is that for the first time the features of Ernest Hemingway’s works were detected and systemized in this area.
The practical value is that this material is directed to be used in English and special-course classes as a help in teaching English thanks to which pupils not only study English lexis and grammar, but also take up the culture of English-speaking countries.
The work consists of introduction (presenting the topicality of the problem and the main aspects of making the research), four parts of the main content (three theoretical and one practical), conclusions, bibliography including 48 sources and applications.



1.1. The Life Story of E. Hemingway……………………………………………….9


2.1. Economical Style of the Author………………………………………………...16

2.2. The Flavor of the Spanish Language……………………………………………22

2.3. The Technique of Flashback and Reflecting the Events of His Own Life……...23

2.4. Tragic Mood of Most of His Works…………………………………………….24


3.1 Stark Minimalism of Writing Style in the Novel………………………………..28

3.2 The Reflection of the Author’s Life and World History in the Novel…………..31

3.3 The Impressionistic Techniques of the Writer in the Novel…………………….36

3.4 The Implication and the Manners of Expressing It in the Novel………………..40






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