There is also another situation when a word is borrowed by several languages, not just by one. Such words usually convey concepts which are significant in the field of com¬munication. Many of them are of Latin and Greek origin.
Antrushina in her book gives examples of such international words. She suggests that most international words belong to the names of science:
There are also:
o numerous terms of art in this group: music, theatre, drama, tragedy, comedy, artist, primadonna, etc.;
o the sports terms: football, volley-ball, baseball, hockey, cricket, rugby, tennis, golf, etc.
o political terms: politics, policy, revolution, progress, democracy, communism, anti-militarism.
o Words of the period of the 20th century scientific and technological advances: atomic, antibiotic, radio, television, sputnik (a Russian borrowing).
o Fruits and foodstuffs imported from exotic coun¬tries: coffee, cocoa, chocolate, banana, mango, avocado, grapefruit.
Antrushina also points out that the similarity of such words as the English son, the German Sohn and the Russian сын should not lead one to the quite false conclusion that they are international words. They represent the Indo-European group of the native element in each respec¬tive language and are cognates, i. e. words of the same etymological root, and not borrowings .
If to speak about the types of borrowings we suggest that it is necessary to speak about etymological doublets. Etymological doublets are the words that has the same origin but different in the phonemic structure and meaning. For example, the words shirt and skirt etymologically descend from the same root. Shirt is a native word, and skirt, is a Scandinavian borrowing. Their phonemic shape is different, and yet there is a certain resemblance which reflects their common origin. Their meanings are also different but easily associated: they both denote articles of clothing.
Such words may enter the vocabulary by different routes. Some of these pairs, like shirt and skirt, consist of a native word and a borrowed word: shrew, n. (E.) - screw, n. (Sc.).
Others are represented by two borrowings from different languages which are historically descended from the same root:
senior (Lat.) - sir (Fr.),
canal (Lat.) - channel (Fr.),
captain (Lat.) - chieftan (Fr.).
Besides etymological doublets we can meet etymological triplets (i. e. groups of three words of common root). Of course it occurs quite rarely, but here are at least two examples:
hospital (Lat.) - hostel (Norm. Fr.) - hotel (Par. Fr.),
to capture (Lat.) - to catch (Norm. Fr.) - to chase (Par. Fr.).
A doublet may also consist of a shortened word and the one from which it was derived:
o history - story,
o fantasy - fancy,
o fanatic - fan,
o defence - fence,
o courtesy - curtsy,
o shadow - shade.
So summing everything up it is necessary to say that there are a lot of borrowings in the English language and the Latin borrowings занимают not the last position and play a very great role in the process of developing English.
1.3. Ways of assimilation of Latin borrowings.
The eminent scholar Maria Pei tried to examine the question whether the words come from one language to another and remain alien in appearance . And she answers to her own question by saying that they adjust themselves to the new environment and get adapted to the norms of the recipient language. Of course the borrowed words undergo certain changes which gradually erase their foreign features and finally, they are assimilated. Sometimes the process of assimilation develops to the point when the foreign origin of a word is quite unrecognizable. It is difficult to believe that such words as dinner, cat, take, cup are not English by origin. Others, though well assimilated, still bear traces of their foreign background.
Assimilation is the process by which a foreign sound becomes similar to an adjacent sound.
The degree of assimilation of borrowings depends on the following factors:
a) from what group of languages the word was borrowed, if the word belongs to the same group of languages to which the borrowing language belongs it is assimilated easier,
b) in what way the word is borrowed: orally or in the written form, words borrowed orally are assimilated quicker,
c) how often the borrowing is used in the language, the greater the frequency of its usage, the quicker it is assimilated,
d) how long the word lives in the language, the longer it lives, the more assimilated it is.
According to the degree of assimilation borrowings can be:
1. Fully assimilated. It means that the foreign word corresponds with morphological, phonetic and spelling rules of the language. We use such words in the everyday speech and we dont pay attention to the origin of this word.
Completely assimilated borrowings are not felt as foreign words in the language. Completely assimilated verbs belong to regular verbs, e.g. correct -corrected. Completely assimilated nouns form their plural by means of s-inflexion, e.g. gate- gates. In completely assimilated French words the stress has been shifted from the last syllable to the last but one.
Semantic assimilation of borrowed words depends on the words existing in the borrowing language, as a rule, a borrowed word does not bring all its meanings into the borrowing language, if it is polysemantic, e.g. the Russian borrowing «sputnik» is used in English only in one of its meanings.
Latin borrowings in the novel Vanity Fair by William Makepaece Thackeray
Theoretical part. The theoretical analysis of Latin borrowings in the English language. 5
1.1. Borrowings in the language and their role. 5
1.2. Types of borrowings in the lexical system of the language. 11
1.3. Ways of assimilation of Latin borrowings. 17
Practical part. Linguistic analysis of using Latin borrowings in the novel Vanity Fair by William Makepeace Thackeray
Any person who doesnt know English but speaks French or some other language is certain to recognize a great amount of familiar-looking words when skipping through an English book. It is so because the English vocabulary contains an immense number of words of foreign origin. Words that came to English from other languages and constantly used in it as the original are called borrowings. One of the main way of enlarging the lexical system of the language is represented by borrowings. The role of borrowings is different in various languages and it depends on certain development conditions.
Arnold I.V. considers that borrowings is one of the way of enlarging the vocabulary but it is not the only and not the main one .
The quantity of borrowed words in English is much higher than in other languages. The English language had more opportunities to borrow words from other languages due to the great history of England that includes various invaders and battles.
It is calculated that 30% of all English words are native. Thats why a lot of linguists consider that the English language doesnt belong to the group of Germanic languages but to the Romano-Germanic group.
It happens very often that a foreign word comes to English and it is borrowed not only with its lexical meaning but also with its grammar form which makes more difficulties for those people who study and speak English. It allows us to speak that the topic of this project is relevant.
The aim of this project is to study the usage of Latin borrowings in the English language.
The subject of the project is Latin borrowings. And the Object is the English language itself.
The aim, the subject and the object of this project allow us to state the following research tasks:
1) to analyze the theoretical literature of the topic of the project;
2) to study the question of borrowing and their role in English;
3) to study the types of borrowings in the English language;
4) to study the ways of assimilation of Latin borrowings in English;
5) to analyze the usage of Latin borrowings in the novel Vanity Fair by William Makepeace Thackeray.
It is used the descriptive method and the method of semantic analysis in this project.
The theoretical base of this project is stands on the works of such scientists in the sphere of linguistics as
It is used the novel Vanity Fair by William Makepeace Thackeray in this project for the linguistic analysis.
Structurally, this project consists of the introduction, two parts, conclusion and bibliography.
In the introduction it was explained the aim, the object, the subject, tasks and the relevancy of the project.
In the theoretical part the questions of borrowings, types of borrowings and ways of their assimilation were examined.
The practical part represents the linguistic analysis of Latin borrowings in the novel Vanity Fair by William Makepeace Thackeray.
All main thoughts are set in the conclusion of the project.
Bibliography consists of sources.
Theoretical part. The theoretical analysis of Latin borrowings in the English language.
1.1. Borrowings in the language and their role
Etymologically the vocabulary of the English language is far from being homogeneous. It consists of two layers the native words and the borrowed words. Borrowing is one of the means of enlarging the vocabulary. Borrowings represent the larger group of words. Native words comprise only 30% of the total number of words in the English language. But they have a wider range of lexical and grammatical valency, they are highly polysemantic and productive in forming word clusters and set expressions.
According to some linguists Borrowed words (loan words, borrowings) are words taken over from another language and modified according to the patterns of the receiving language .
Nowadays borrowing is not very important in the every day life but it is active in the sphere of science. It is common that a lot of terms are often made up of borrowed morphemes in general from classical languages .
In the modern world the English language is constantly enriched by words made up of morphemes of Latin and Greek origin. For example,
- words with the morphemes tron used to chiefly in the field of electronics: mesotron, cyclotron;
- tele- : telecast, telecture, telediagnosis;
- -in: protein, penicillin;
- -scope: iconoscope, oscilloscope;
- Meta- : metaculture, metaprogram;
- Para- uses in the meaning related to, near: paralinguistic, parabiospheric;
- Video- : videodisk, videophone.
In fact all the above mentioned words consisted of borrowed morphemes cannot be regarded as true borrowings because these words did not exist either in the Greek or in the Latin Languages.
There are also true borrowings in English. The borrowed words reflect the way of life, the peculiarities of the development of the country from which language the word came.
In many cases a borrowed word especially the one that was borrowed long ago is practically indistinguishable from a native word without a thorough etymological analysis. For example, such words as street, school, face.
Ginzburg considers that the number of borrowings in the language and the role that is played by them is determined by the historical development of the nation speaking the language . Linguists consider that there are two ways of borrowings:
- Direct borrowing from another language as the result of contacts with the people of another country or with their literature;
- Indirect borrowed not from the source language but through another one.
Ginzburg suggests that the most effective way of borrowing is direct .
When analysing borrowed words we should distinguish between the two terms:
- "source of borrowing" and
- "origin of borrowing".
The first term is applied to the language from which the word was immediately borrowed, the second - to the language to which the word may be ultimately traced. For example:
- table - source of borrowing - French, origin of borrowing Latin;
- elephant - source of borrowing - French, origin Egypt;
- convene - source of borrowing - French, origin Latin.
The closer the two interacting languages are in structure the easier it is for words of one language to penetrate into the other.
A lot of linguists consider that it is a mistake to think that the role of any word is whether it is borrowed or native . However, all the most used prepositions, adjunctions, adverbs, all numerals, except such numerals as second, million, billion and a great amount of nouns are native in the language.
At first all linguists were interested in the sources and dates of borrowings and sometimes they began to interest what the reason and the conditions of borrowings are. But some of linguists suggest that scientists should not stop investigations and they should be interested not only in the source and reason of the borrowed word but in the way of assimilation of the word .
This project concerns the question of Latin borrowings which represent a considerable part in the lexical system of the language. suggests that there are only three periods when Latin words were borrowed.
The first period is the period when the ancestors of Anglo-Saxon that populated the northern part of Central Europe carried on trade and were at the war with Roman Empire, they met with Roman merchants and borrowed some words. Those words concern the sphere of trade, the products that were unknown to those tribes, the words from the sphere of building.
The examples of the borrowed words of the first period are represented in the table 1.
Latin word Modern English word
Vinum вино Wine [´wain] вино
Pondo мера веса Pound [´paund]- фунт
uncia- унция Ounce [´auns]- унция
moneta- кусочки металла Mint [´mint]- чеканить монеты
cista- ящик (вместилище) chest [ʧest]- сундук для хранения
Discum блюдо дискdish [diò]
pipere- перец pepper [pepə]
persicum- персик peach [pi:ʧ]
pirum- груша (pirea) pear [pɛə]
prunum- слива plum [plʌm]
butyrum- масло butter [bʌtə]
plante- растение plant [plɑ:nt] растение,
strata via- мощёная дорога street [strɪ:t]- улица
campus- лагерь camp [kæmp]- лагерь
colonia- поселение colony [kɔlənɪ]- колония,
castra- крепость chester [ʧestə]- входит в
The second period concerns Christianity. Christianity was brought by Roman preachers and the Latin language was used during the mass, thats why a lot of religious words came to English. During this period a lot of schools appeared thats why a lot of words from different spheres of science were borrowed. Some of them are represented in table 2.
episcopus- епископ bishop [bɪʃəp]
presbyter- священник priest [prɪ:st]
monachus- монах monk [monk]
scrinium- священная гробница shrine [ʃrɑɪn]
candela- свеча candle [kændl]
monasterium- монастырь mynster (minster) [mɪnstə]
Westminster- Западный монастырь Westminster
Eastmynster-Восточный монастырь Eastmynster
schola- школа school [sku:l]
magister- учитель schoolmaster [sku:lmʌstə]
canon- правило canon [kænən]
chronica- хроника chronical
versus- стихи verse [və:s]
grammatika nota оценка grammar [græmə]
The third period is the Renaissance. The words borrowed in this period are mainly scientific. They came to the English language through the literature which helped to save the Latin form of the word (table 3).
animal- [ ænɪməl] животное
formula- [fɔ:mʝulə] Формула
inertia- [ɪnə:ʃʝə] Инерция
Maximum- [mæksiməm] Максимум
Minimum- [mɪnɪməm] Минимум
memorandum- [,memərændum] Меморандум
veto- [ vɪ:tou] Вето
Alibi - [ ælɪbɑɪ] Алиби
Autograph - [ɔ:təgrəf] Автограф
atmosphere- [ ætmɔsfɪə] Атмосфера
excursion- [ɪkskə:ʃn]- Экскурсия
jurisprudence- [ʤuərɪs,pru:dəns] Юриспруденция
detection[dɪtekʃn] Обнаружение, детектирование
to emit[ɪmɪt] Выделять тепло, излучат
oscillation[,ɔsɪleɪʃn] Качание, колебание
optimum[ɔptɪməm] Совокупность наиболее приятных условий
quantum[kwɔntəm] Количество, сумма, квантум
Summing everything up it is clear that there were two ways of borrowing words: while communicating and though the literature. A lot of words that were borrowed from Latin became very popular and even today there are a lot of them in the every day speech.
1 Арнольд.И.В. Лексикология современного английского языка. Учебное пособие. Изд-во лит-ры на иностранных языках.- М: 1959
2 'Etymological Survey', § 5, p. 164.
3 Практикум з курсу лексикології англ. мови для студентів III курсу/ Уклад., І.Г. Анікеєнко, Л.Ф. Бойцан, Л.В. Ганецька. - К., КДЛУ, 1999. - 72 с.
Modern English Lexicology. Moscow external university of humanities, 1996.
Алехина А.И. Идиоматика современного английского языка. М., 1982.