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Контрольная работа: 7 упражнений, текст для перевода.


Английский язык

Страниц: 7
Автор: Ольга
496  руб.
VII. Arrange the following words in pairs of antonyms:

pleasantness unpleasantness

restless restful

inhibit exhibit

bore amuse

dejection serenity

acceptance withdrawal

avoidance approach

approval disapproval

reveal conceal

understanding misunderstanding

respect disrespect

please displease
The Language of the Body

One of the best locations to study the body language is a political rally. Each speaker has lready worked out his verbal message, usually a string of highly predictable platitudes calculated to gain him applause. But while he is mouthing his utterances, his hands are busy too. He will not be aware precisely what they are doing, merely that they are beating time to his statements and helping to underline them. If we ignore his words and focus exclusively on his hands, it soon becomes clear that lie employs some major hand signals.

If he is making a powerful point, he will clench his fist, as if about to punch an invisible opponent. If he is trying to chop down a rival proposal, he switches instead to the hand-chop gesture, cutting down through the air as forcibly as possible with a flattened hand, its hard edge pointing down. With this action he transforms his hand into a symbolic axe.

For those who wish to appear forceful, but not too violent, there is a slightly milder hand gesture the semi-clenched fist. With the thumb uppermost, on top of the bent forefinger, this half-fist is jerked in the air to emphasize point after point in the speaker's words. It is almost as if he is serving an invisible writ on liis audience. This gesture is favoured by politicians.

In a more dominant mood, the speaker introduces the palm-down hand posture, usually with a few slight downward movements. In this he is symbolically calming down his audience, as if it were composed entirely of unruly children. If lie is less sure of himself, he uses the opposite hand signal, with the palm up. This is a gesture of the beggar, reaching out his hand for help. This particular gesture is universal and can even be seen in wild chimpanzees when begging for food from companions.

If the speaker wishes his audience to embrace his ideas, he offers them a hint of an embrace in his hand gestures. He reaches out both hands, with his palms facing one another, as if trying to hug his audience at a distance. This is a favourite gesture of good communicators, who know the value of making their audience feel intimate with those on the platform.

Finally there is one more special forefinger gesture much loved by the more aggressive politicians, that is a prodding forefinger, aimed straight towards the audience, as if stabbing them into submission.

There are, of course, many other gesticulations employed during speech-making. Because both the speaker and the audience ere primarily focussed on the words being spoken, none of these gestures is deliberately made or deliberately read. They form a sub-text which carries with it a mood communication system that imparts far more information than any of those present may realize. They will transmit to the audience either a feeling that the speaker is not to be trusted or that he means what he says. If his verbal message is false or exaggerated, his gestures will give him away. They will make a *bad fit* with his words and leave the audience uncomfortable, without knowing quite why. If they match well with the spoken words, the listeners will unconsciously sense that harmony and will respond more positively.
I. Give Russian equivalents for:

To dislike; to handle emotionally charged situations; to put forth a theory; to be aware of; to signify; to convey information; to realize; to acknowledge; to intend; to have an effect on; to indicate; to fail; to occur; to leak; to prefer; to insult; to involve; to touch; to apply the rules to; to keep in mind; to evoke.

II. Give English equivalents for:

Чувство; усталость; приобретенный; врожденный; недостаток интереса; научение; средя; эмоциояальный заряд; невербальное общение; супруг; сообщение; ду¬смысленный; придавать значение; игнорировать; слу¬чайный взгляд; взаимодействие; вызывать стресс; ис¬пытывать стресс.

III. Make up a list of pleasant and unpleasant emotions. Choose them, from the words below:

Fear; anger; amusement; anticipation; annoyance; astonishment; grief; horror; anxiety; happiness; calmness; disgust; jealousy; elation; surprise; timidity; serenity; embarrassment; boredom; apprehension; sorrow.

Give examples of those emotions that may comprize an emotional mixture.

IV. Derive adjectives from the following nouns:

Anger; jealousy; happiness; calmness; tension; hopefulness; anxiety; sorrow; emotion; ambiguity; confusion; excitement; stress; uncertainty,

V. Explain in English the meanings of the following word-combinations:

Emotional activity; emotional storm; outbreaks of rage; to show rapport; marital situation; interpersonal attitudes; to have an impact on; to provide a complete overview; to receive acknowledgement; fight-or-flight response; to be vulnerable.

VI. Arrange the following words in pairs of synonyms;

sorrow anger

horror marital break-up

surprise distressed

rage grief

calmness sign

indicator relaxation

message reaction

divorce terror

response serenity

relief astonishment

worried signal

VII. Arrange the following words in pairs of antonyms:

pleasantness amuse

restless disapproval

inhibit displease

bore unpleasantness

dejection approach

acceptance misunderstanding

avoidance restful

approval disrespect

reveal exhibit

understanding canceal

respect serenity

please withdrawal
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