1. The turbofan engine combines features of both the turbojet and turboprop engines. The engine consists of a diffuser, a front fan, a mechanical compressor, a combustion chamber, a turbine a bypass duct, and an exhaust nozzle or nozzles. The function of the diffuser is to convert the kinetic energy of the entering air into a static pressure rise. The diffuser delivers its air to a fan, which further compresses it to a small amount (approximately 1,5 to 2,0 pressure ratio). The air flow is then split and a portion enters the bypass duct, while the remainder continues to flow into the mechanical compressor, combustion chamber and the turbine. The ratio of the air flow through the bypass duct to the air flow through the gas generator is defined as the bypass ratio. The turbine, as with the turboprop engine, provides the power for both the fan and the compressor.
2. Unlike the turboprop engine, however there is still considerable energy available in the gases downstream of the turbine. The exhaust gases are therefore further expanded in the exhaust nozzle to a velocity greater than the flight velocity producing thrust for propulsion. The bypass air is also expanded, either through a common nozzle with the exhaust gases or through a separate nozzle, to a velocity higher than the flight velocity, producing additional thrust propulsion. The turbofan engine thus derives its propulsive thrust from the high velocity exhausts of both the bypass air and the gas generator gases.
3. In the turbofan engine the fan may be located aft of the gas generator turbine. However, the propulsive thrust of the engine is still derived from the high velocity exhaust of both the fan and the gas generator.
2. Найдите в тексте ответы на следующие вопросы:
1. What does the turbofan engine consist of?
2. Where does the turbofan engine derive its propulsive thrust from?
3. Выпишите из текста английские соответствия следующим сочетаниям:
1. Воздухопровод второго контура
2. Коэффициент двухконтурности
3. Поток воздуха
4. Выхлопные газы
4. Переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на глаголы «should» (в значении должен», «следует») и «would» (в сослагательном наклонении глагол + частица «бы»).
1. The overhaul shop should be kept clean and orderly
2. The overhaul mechanic should be familiar with the engine and its approved overhaul procedures.
3. A nuclear-powered plane would be capable of making dips round the world without having to refuel.
4. It would be useful to remember that the greater the vacuum the more efficient the rocket becomes.
5. Переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на конструкцию «самостоятельный причастный оборот».
1. Turbojets are classified into two general groups, each depending upon the type of used compressor.
2. The oil having been exhausted, the engine stopped.
3. A body falling to the ground, its speed increases.
4. Jet fuels being not burned completely, small amounts of liquid or vapour hydrocarbons are emitted in the exhaust gases.
6. Переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на конструкцию «сложное дополнение».
1. We know fir-tree attachment to be widely used for security turbine buckets.
2. We consider nuclear energy to be the prime source of heat energy.
3. For simplicity hydrodynamists believe the fluids to be inviscous and incompressible.
4. The astronaut reported spacecraft mean temperature to exceed the designed temperature by 5°C.
1. Переведите 1, 2, 3 абзацы текста.
1. That portion of the airplane, occupied by pilots is the pilot's cockpit. From this cockpit all controls used in flying and landing radiate. All the instruments and equipment are installed in accessible positions. Single-place airplanes have one cockpit (accommodations for the pilot only). Two-place airplanes usually have two cockpits in tandem, although some airplanes have single cabin with two seats side by side. A cargo or other large or special type airplane has a pilot's compartment or control room in addition to the cabin. Most cockpits and cabins are completely enclosed to protect the pilot and the crew from atmospheric conditions.
2. All control systems terminate in the cockpit; all operational and navigational instruments are located here. All decisions regarding the flight of the airplane, with very few exceptions when the airplane is about to take off and land, are determined here.
3. It is necessary to locate the seat of the pilot in the cockpit so that he may have sufficient vision in all possible directions, with special attention to forward, upward, downward and sideward vision.
4. All switches and controls which the pilot must operate should be located as close to him as possible so that it will be unnecessary for him to stretch.
5. Thus the cockpit for an airplane should be constructed to give the maximum possible comfort, adequate vision and accessibility to all controls.
2. Найдите в тексте ответы на следующие вопросы:
1. How is it necessary to locate the seat of the pilot in the cabin?
2. How should the cockpit be constructed?
3. Найдите в тексте производные от следующих слов, выпишите их, переведите на русский язык, укажите часть речи:
To land, to equip, access, to accommodate, usual, to add, complete, operation, except.
4. Переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Подчеркните инфинитив и определите его функцию:
1. The fuselage must be strong enough to withstand different loads acting on it
2. Engines to be employed in the field must be tested in the laboratory.
3. A central fuel-filling system is being used to facilitate easy handling of the
4. To prevent foreign matter from entering the air intake the inlet are screened.
5. Переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Подчеркните причастия I и II, определите их функцию:
1. The front portion of the wing is termed the leading edge, and the rear portion is called the trailing edge.
2. Monocoque is a structure made in the form of the single shell.
3. The forward movement of the control slick lowers the nose of the machine and raises the tail causing, the aircraft to descend.
4. The data received provided important information on engine operation under a number of adverse conditions.
6. Переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Подчеркните герундий:
1. The power plant serves for developing power for flight and creating thrust.
2. The ailerons control the motion of the aeroplane about the longitudinal axis and assist in banking for a turn.
3. The purpose of the landing gear is to permit the airplane to take off and land without using special launching apparatus.
4. All the efforts of the designers and builders are usually aimed at achieving maximum safety.
7. Переведите на русский язык следующие предложения с конструкцией It is (was) that (who,which):
1. It was before the Second World War that rockets were largely experimental.
2. It is the diameter of the compressor that is to be changed.
3. It is the rudder that determines the horizontal direction of flight of an aeroplane
Переведите 1, 2, 3 абзацы текста.
AIRCRAFT POWER PLANT
1. The power plant is a means of creating thrust necessary for the movement of an airplane through the air and on the ground. The power plant includes an engine (piston, turbojet, turbofan), a propeller, engine mount, firewall, cowling, fairing, nacelle or pod, feed system, cooling system, engine control system, fire prevention system, anti-icing device, etc.
2. Types of the engine, their number and location on the airplane depend on tactical and technical specifications for the airplane, namely, its speed, altitude, range, load-carrying capacity, etc.
3. Engines are mounted in the wing and on the wingtips. In the case of their wing sections engines are housed in pod nacelles beneath the wing. Engines are also mounted inside the fuselage. Recently there appeared a trend to mount engines on each side of the aft fuselage. Such a location of engines permits an unusually clean wing design and decreases the noise in passenger compartments to a great extent.
4. The power plant is bolted to an engine mount. The engine mount is a frame which supports the engine and connects it with the wing or fuselage. Engine mounts vary widely in appearance and construction.
5. Immediately behind the engine mount is the firewall. The purpose of the firewall is to protect the airplane from any hot liquids, gases or flame from the engine. Cowlings and fairings are designed to keep drag to a minimum and still allow enough air to cool the engine. They consist of detachable section for covering portions of the airplane, such as engines, mounts and other parts.
2. Найдите в тексте ответы на следующие вопросы:
1. What is the power plant?
2. How do engine mounts vary?
3. Найдите в тексте производные от следующих слов, выпишите их, переведите на русский язык, укажите часть речи
To create, to move, to prevent, to locate, tact, recent, usual, wide, construct, detach.
4. Переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на конструкцию «сложное предложение».
1. Jet engines are known to have been widely used for aircraft propulsion.
2. The lubrication system of jet engines seems to be rather simple.
3. The main sources of the helicopters are known to be the engines and the rotors.
4. The atmosphere happens to change with the increase of altitude.
5. Переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на конструкцию «сложное предложение».
1. The shaft is supported by two bearings, the ball bearings absorbing radial and axial thrust loads.
2. The gas turbine having been tested thoroughly, it may be installed into the aircraft.
3. Fuel nozzles inject fuel to the combustion chamber, swirl vanes helping in good mixing of fuel and air.
4. The pressure removed, the air comes back to its original volume.
6. Переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обозначьте место опущенных союзов:
1. The acceleration the airplane encounters in flight increases the forces that act on the radio-devices.
2. The vertical speed of the plane varies according to the load the plane carries.