If speak about the advertising, the need in a brand new, alternative communication that would bring in a fresh and effective methods of reaching the target audience that need had existed from the very beginning.
Obviously, product placement has been around for decades but it was never mainstream, until now.
Let us go deeper into the details and search some examples in the history.
In the XIXth century product placement became a common thing in publishing.
In 1920s the American radio station used the aired time for active advertisement of different products and services.
The first case of product placing in the movie industry bechanced in the Soviet film in 1925. That year Sergei Eisenstein took up the running and painted the flag of the battleship Potyemkin into the red color. That film influenced the movie industry greatly not only because it was the first time of the color usage in a movie, but also because it was the most vivid propaganda accent in a shot. It was the real product placement and the advertisement of the communist ideals at the same time.
And now lets speak about the USA and its movie industry. Product placement appeared there in the beginning of the 1940s. Right in that time in there was the campaign for the healthy way of living held in the US. Popeye the sailor personage has been developed for demonstrating the good qualities of tinned spinach.
In the early media, for example radio in the 1930s and 1940s and early television in the 1950s, programs were often underwritten by companies. "Soap operas" are called such because they were initially underwritten by consumer packaged goods companies such as Procter & Gamble or Unilever.
Eventually in the 1950s with the rise television and the revenue generating 30-second commercials, product placement slowed down.
Only in the beginning of the 1980s product placement has finally developed into independent branch of the industry. In the end of that decade the biggest movie industries of the Western Europe had already made special departments, the only specialization of which was the product placement.
The earliest example of product placement in a computer or video game occurs in the 1984 game Action Biker for KP's Skips crisps.
In brief, that is how product placement became a well known and effective way for promotion of the products. Beginning from that period of time, attention to product placement rose up, which was true for the media, corporate marketers and marketers-scientists.
That is why the topic of our yearly essay is an urgent one.
Subject of inquiry: product placement.
Subject of investigation: usage of product placement and its work.
Objective: examination of product placement and its usage, theoretical and practical aspects.
1) defining product placement term;
2) examination of theoretical aspects of product placement and its usage;
3) examination of product placement and its usage in the movies.
How Product Placement Works
1. Theoretical Aspects of Product Placement4
1.1. Definition of Product Placement4
1.2. Features and Benefits of Product Placement7
1.3. Categories and Variations of Product Placement. The structure of product placement9
2. Analysis of Product Placement and its Usage in the Movies13
2.1. Examples of Product Placement and its Usage in the Movies13
1) Alba W. & Hutchinson W. Dimensions of Consumer Expertise. Journal of Consumer Research, March 1987.
2) Babin, L.A. and Carder, S.T. "Advertising via the box office: Is product placement effective?" Journal of Promotion Management 3 (1/2), 31-51, 1996.
3) Balasubramanian, Siva K. (1994) "Beyond Advertising and Publicity: Hybrid Messages and Public Policy Issues," Journal of Advertising, 23 (4), 29-46
4) Crispin Miller, Mark (April 1990). "Hollywood: The Ad". The Atlantic. http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/199004/hollywood. Retrieved on 8 February 2009.
5) Kalinichenko, I. A. "Brand props in prime-time television programs: A content analysis." Unpublished Master's Thesis. The University of Georgia. Athens, Georgia, 1998.
6) Newell, Jay Salmon, Charles T. Chang, Susan. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, December 2006.
7) Russell, Cristel A. (2002) Investigating the Effectiveness of Product Placements in Television Shows: The Role of Modality and Plot Connection Congruence on Brand Memory and Attitude, Journal of Consumer Research, 29 (3), 306-318.
8) Sapolsky, B.S. & Kinney, L. "You oughta be in pictures: Product placements in the top-grossing films of 1991." Proceedings of the 1994 American Academy of Advertising Conference, K.W. King (ed.). Athens, GA: American Academy of Advertising, 1994.
9) Weaver, D. T., & Oliver, M. B. (2000, June). Television programs and advertising: Measuring the effectiveness of product placement within Seinfeld.
15) http://encarta.msn.com/dictionary_701708954/product_ placement.html
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