Child labour is an attraction of children to work on a regular basis. Now in the majority of the countries child labour is considered the form of operation and is recognised by illegal. In the past child labour was widespread, but after occurrence and a recognition of concepts of safety of work and the rights of children of a scope of child labour gradually began to be reduced. Among the kinds of child labour existing in civilised countries, it is possible to note work in show business (cinema, theatre, a platform). Children often happen are involved in various kinds of criminal activity, including prostitution and a pornography. In some countries of Africa of children arm and force to participate in operations. The United Nations and the ILO consider child labour as operation . Article 32 of the Convention about the rights of the child guarantees «on protection against economic operation and against performance of any work which can represent danger to its health or serve as an obstacle in reception of formation by it, or cause a damage to its health and physical, intellectual, spiritual, moral and social development» . In India the highest indicator of use children's and forced labour, in such areas as a gold mining, gathering of cocoa and tailoring, according to the report of the government of the USA is fixed. In the list of the countries in which use forced labour, Myanma is in the lead – more often such workers use at gathering of rice, a sugar cane and rubber. The six of the states where the maximum number of similar infringements is revealed, included Brazil, Bangladesh, China and Philippines. Sixty nine percent of children working worldwide, are occupied in agriculture – they collect a clap, tobacco, coffee, rice, a sugar cane and cocoa. It is important to acknowledge from the outset that the problem of child performers in the entertainment industry is different in scale and nature from that of child labourers targeted by IPEC and a large number of governments and non-governmental organizations around the world. With possibly very few exceptions, at least in the developed countries, children are not driven to work in these industries because of poverty, their work environments are not hazardous or oppressive and, of course, the numbers of child performers concerned are minuscule in comparison with the hundreds of millions of children employed in industrial, agricultural and other work that is more usually the focus of those with an interest in child labour. This is recognized in Article 8 of Convention 138, which acknowledges the special status of child performers by allowing exceptions to the prohibition of employment or work children for “such purposes as participation in artistic performances”.
Part 1. Aspects of intellectual property 5
Part 2. Child Labor 8
1. Birmingham City Council: “Children in Entertainment”(Birmingham, United Kingdom, Educational Welfare Service), at http://www.bgfl.org/services/ews/files/childent.pdf. 2. “Children as Chattels: The Disturbing Plight of Child Performers,” by Marc R. Staenberg, Esq. And Daniel K. Stuart, Esq., Beverly Hills Entertainment Lawyers Association Journal, April 2009. 3. Convention on the Rights of the Child. United Nations. 4. Dorianne Beyer: “Understanding and Applying Child Labor Laws to Today’s School-to-Work Transition Programs,” CenterFocus, National Center for Research in Vocational Education, University of California at Berkeley, April 2005. 5. Worst Forms of Child labor Recommendation, 1999. International labor Organization. 6. Конвенция о правах ребёнка