Using idioms in speech is a difficult problem for people, learning English language as a foreign one all over the world free. Idioms often cause serious difficulties even with people, who know English very well. And if they intentionally avoid using idioms, in this case their oral and written speech, most likely, will be dull and high-flown. So we think that this research is quite actual.
Idioms make our speech more expressive, vivid, and imaginative. Having a rich vocabulary of idioms, you can not only understand shades of meaning, stylistics, emotion, but you also will enrich your speech, make it more natural, that, of course, will make your intercourse easier with foreign colleagues and friends.
Idiom (Latin: idioma, “special property”, f. Greek: ἰδίωμα — idiōma, “special feature, special phrasing”, f. Greek: ἴδιος — idios, “one’s own”) is an expression, word, or phrase that has a figurative meaning that is comprehended in regard to a common use of that expression that is separate from the literal meaning or definition of the words of which it is made. There are estimated to be at least 25,000 idiomatic expressions in the English language.
In linguistics, idioms are usually presumed to be figures of speech contradicting the principle of compositionality; yet the matter remains debated. John Saeed defines an “idiom” as words collocated that became affixed to each other until metamorphosing into a fossilised term. This collocation — words commonly used in a group — redefines each component word in the word-group and becomes an idiomatic expression. The words develop a specialized meaning as an entity, as an idiom. Moreover, an idiom is an expression, word, or phrase whose sense means something different from what the words literally imply. When a speaker uses an idiom, the listener might mistake its actual meaning, if he or she has not heard this figure of speech before. Idioms usually do not translate well; in some cases, when an idiom is translated into another language, either its meaning is changed or it is meaningless.
People, who improving in English language, should precisely understand that using idioms in daily intercourse isn’t foppery or tribute to a style of the end of XX century. On the contrary, understanding and right using idioms testifies about high level of possession of English language.
CHAPTER 1. IDIOM AS KEY TERM OF PHRASEOLOGY 5
1.1. Idioms in Lexicography 5
1.2. Structure of Idioms 10
1.3. Idioms and Russian Mentality 13
1.4. Metaphor as the Way of Idioms Presentation 17
CHAPTER 2. REALIZATION OF IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS AND THE WAYS OF THEIR TRANSLATION INTO RUSSIAN 25
2.1. Idioms in Advertisements 25
2.2. Idioms in Fiction 29
2.2.1. Research Idioms at Rаnkin’s Work 32
2.3. Difficulties the Translator Meets in Translating Idioms 52
2.4. Differences and Usage idioms in American English and British English 55
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